Transcription Standards


An initiative to standardize the way names are written, this effort is made solely for the purpose of easing communication between the different languages.


Last updated: 20/1/2023

Kalmasoft Roman Arabic Transcription System

KRATS (Kalmasoft Roman Arabic Transcription System©) is a phonemic transcription system to convert all Latin script based proper nouns to Abjad based Arabic parallel. The system is developed to be used for Arabicizing names written in Roman alphabet in general.

Name Arabicization is not an easy straigntforward task since the Arabic writing system is not standard over all Arabic speaking geography, it mainly requires special consideration for the different Arabic dialectal varities that manifest the way each name's is spelled; in many cases, the usage of different letters is based on the dialect that covers the area under consideration.

While such names will phonetically remain specific to their original languages, this transcription standard is sufficiently good to approximate the phonemic characteristics of the targeted romanized version. You may download KRATS as text file or the print version from the link below.

The system is not meant to retrieve names that are originally Arabic, it also not suited for Arabicizing names that are romanized using specific transcription or transliteration system.

Fields key

Latin: Latin letter
Language: Latin scripted language
Arabic: Arabic letter
Dialect: Arabic dialect, ARAB: Common or MSA, LVNT: Levantine, EGYP: Egyptian, MORC: Moroccan, OMAN: Omani, HASN: Hassaniya, IRAQ: Iraqi, SDAN: Sudanese, HJAZ: Hijazi, YMEN: Yemeni
Position: Position the Latin letter, INT: initial, MED: medial, FIN: final, ANY: anywhere
Name: Arabic letter name
Unicode: Unicode for the Arabic character
IPA: Arabic letter phonetic transcription in IPA

ID Latin Language Arabic Dialect Position Name Unicode IPA
001 A ا ARAB Alif 0x0627 /ɑː/
002 B ب ARAB 0x0628 /b/
003 D د ARAB dāl 0x062F /d/
004 E ي ARAB 0x064A /i/
005 F ف ARAB 0x0641 /f/
006 G غ LVNT ghayn 0x063A /g/
007 G گ IRAQ gāf 0x06AF /g/
008 G ق HJAZ qāf 0x0642 /g/
009 G ڭ MORC gāf 0x06AD /g/
010 G ج EGYP jīm 0x062C /g/
011 H ه ARAB 0x0647 /h/
012 J ج ARAB jīm 0x062C /ʤ/
013 J ژ IRAQ zhe 0x0698 /ʒ/
014 K ك ARAB kāf 0x0643 /k/
015 L ل ARAB lām 0x0644 /l,ɫ/
016 M م ARAB mīm 0x0645 /m/
017 N ن ARAB nūn 0x0646 /n/
018 O و ARAB wāw 0x0648 /u,o/
019 P ب ARAB 0x0628 /b/
020 Q ق ARAB qāf 0x0642 /q/
021 R ر ARAB 0x0631 /r/
022 S س ARAB sīn 0x0633 /s/
023 T ت ARAB 0x062A /t/
024 U و ARAB wāw 0x0648 /u/
025 V ڤ ARAB veh 0x06A4 /v/
026 V ف ARAB 0x0641 /f/
027 W و ARAB wāw 0x0648 /u,o/
028 X كس ARAB MED,FIN 0x06430x0633 /ks/
029 Y ي ARAB 0x064A /j/
030 Z ز ARAB zāy 0x0632 /z/
031 CH تش ARAB 0x062A0x0634 /tʃ/
032 CK ك ARAB kāf 0x0643 /k/
033 PF ف ARAB 0x0641 /f/
034 KH خ ARAB khā 0x062E /χ/
035 PH ف ARAB 0x0641 /f/
036 SH ش ARAB shīn 0x0634 /ʃ/
037 TH ث ARAB thā 0x062B /θ/
038 ZH ز ARAB zāy 0x0632 /z/
039 A أ ARAB INT Alif with hamza above 0x0623 /ʔ,ɑ/
040 E إ ARAB INT Alif with hamza below 0x0625 /i/
041 I إ ARAB INT Alif with hamza below 0x0625 /i/
042 O أو ARAB INT 0x06250x0648 /o/
043 U أو ARAB INT 0x06250x0648 /u/
044 Q French ك ARAB kāf 0x0643 /k/
045 R French غ ARAB ghayn 0x063A /ɣ,ʁ/
046 CH French ش ARAB shīn 0x0634 /ʃ/
047 J Spanish خ ARAB khā 0x062E /χ/
048 X Spanish خ ARAB khā 0x062E /χ/
049 J Spanish ه ARAB 0x0647 /h/
050 X Portuguese ز ARAB zāy 0x0632 /z/
051 W German ف ARAB 0x0641 /f/
052 SCH German ش ARAB shīn 0x0634 /ʃ/
053 CZ تش ARAB 0x062A0x0634 /tʃ/
054 CH Gaelic خ ARAB khā 0x062E /χ/
055 BH Gaelic ف ARAB 0x0641 /f/
056 MH Gaelic ف ARAB 0x0641 /f/
057 G Farsi ک ARAB kāf 0x06A9 /g/
058 P Farsi پ ARAB peh 0x067E /p/
059 V Farsi و ARAB wāw 0x0648 /u,o/
060 ZH ژ ARAB zhe 0x0698 /ʒ/
061 C Somali ع ARAB 'Ayn 0x639 /ʕ/
062 X Somali ح ARAB 0x62D /ħ/
063 C چ IRAQ che 0x0686 /tʃ/
064 J Turkish ج ARAB jīm 0x062C /ʤ/
065 H Turkish خ ARAB khā 0x062E /χ/
066 E Turkish ة ARAB FIN tā marbuta 0x0629 /ə/
055 U ف ARAB 0x0641 /f/